Fermierii români se orientează către creşterea vacilor de carne

7 septembrie 2009

Realităţi economice

Fermierii români se orienteaza tot mai mult catre cresterea si exploatarea taurinelor de carne datorita posibilitatilor oferite de structura efectivelor, de conditiile geo-climatice, precum si de cererea tot mai crescuta a carnii de bovine pe piata europeana.

Potrivit datelor furnizate de Ministerul Agriculturii, Padurilor si Dezvoltarii Rurale (MAPDR), pentru perioada 2007-2010, deficitul de carne vita in Uniunea Europeana a fost estimat la peste 200.000 de tone/an.

În România, cresterea bovinelor este o activitate traditionala a populatiei din zona rurala si in special din zona montana si deluroasa.

“Diversitatea productiilor pe care le realizeaza, consumul redus de energie si natura furajelor pe care le valorifica, confera cresterii si exploatarii bovinelor caracterul unei activitati durabile si de perspectiva”, precizeaza documentul MAPDR.

Cu toate acestea, in România se impune imp lementarea raselor de carne, in conditiile in care acestea aduc profit mai mare in zonele de munte, decât vacile de lapte. Practic, fermierii români ar putea exploata, in mod gratuit, peste 2,1 milioane de hectare (ha) de pasuni si pajisti alpine.

Potrivit datelor MAPDR, suprafata totala a pajistilor (pasuni si fânete) in România este de 4.791.428 hectare, din care in zona montana aproximativ 2.165.444 ha, iar in zona de câmpie si deal, 2. 625.984 ha.

Datele Ministerului Agriculturii arata ca in momentul de fata acest tip de vaca (rasele de carne) nu este foarte raspândit in România. Este vorba doar de un efectiv de 29.000 de exemplare, adica nu mai mult de 2,3% din numarul total de exemplare de 2,63 milioane capete.

Tehnologia de crestere a vacilor de carne este foarte simpla, releva documentul MAPDR, iar costurile sunt mai scazute decât in cazul cresterii vacilor de lapte.

“Primul lucru care reduce foarte mult costurile se refera la faptul ca pentru vacile mame nu se construiesc grajduri. Animalele sunt tinute tot timpul anului pe pasune, chiar si in sezonul rece.

Unele rase au nevoie de grajduri acoperite numai in perioada fatarilor, iar altele, cum este rasa Angus, pot fata fara probleme la sfârsitul lunii februarie, chiar in zapada”, afirma specialistii MAPDR.

De asemenea, pasunatul este foarte bine controlat, cu garduri electrice. Animalele se muta de pe o parcela pe alta atunci când inaltimea vegetatiei scade la 10 cm, iar aceasta mutare trebuie sa aiba loc o data la 10-15 zile.
În sezonul cald, pentru a preveni degradarea pasunii, animalele se muta chiar si de doua ori pe zi de pe o parcela pe alta.

Potrivit datelor MAPDR, intretinerea vacilor de carne costa cu atât mai putin cu cât pentru cresterea acestora, furajul principal este masa verde, care reprezinta 90-95% din furajul total.
La ora actuala, cele mai cunoscute rase de carne sunt rasele aberdeen-angus, caharolaise, limousine si bleu blanch belgique.

Punctele forte pentru cresterea vacilor de carne, in opinia specialistilor de la MAPDR sunt suprafetele mari de pasuni si fânete (4,9 milioane ha), existenta capacitatilor de crestere si exploatare a taurinelor pentru ingrasare, capacitate mare de producere a cerealelor destinate furajarii tineretului taurin si a bovine lor adulte in perioada de finisare, dar si un efectiv matca suficient de mare (1.441.783 capete) pentru structurarea productiilor la taurine in cele doua directii – lapte si carne – fara a afecta cota de lapte a României.

De asemenea, exista disponibil de resurse umane in mediul rural pentru cresterea vacilor de carne, disponibil mare de specialisti in domeniul reproductiei, ameliorarii, apararii sanatatii, cercetare si invatamânt de specialitate, precum si o stare buna de sanatate a efectivelor de bovine.

Specialistii MAPDR explica si care sunt puncte vulnerabile in aceste sector, si anume reducerea accentuata a efectivelor si a productiei de carne, functionarea defectuoasa a sistemului de reproductie si a actiunilor sanitare – veterinare, lipsa unui sector puternic producator de carne-marfa (productia neplanificata a carnii), consum scazut pe cap de locuitor si autoconsum ridicat in zonele rurale si o slaba productivitate in sectorul producerii furajelor.

De asemenea, alte puncte vulnerabile in sectorul cresterii vacilor de carne se refera la lipsa unui sistem organizat de aprovizionare a abatoarelor cu animale, dificultatile privind depozitarea si functionarea lantului frigorific, deficiente pe partea de calitate (furaje, greutatea optima la sacrificare, depozitare, ambalare), costul ridicat al procesarii carnii si performante scazute privind oferta si cerintele pietei.

Pentru cresterea numarului de ferme de vaci de carne, Ministrul Agriculturii, prin agentiile subordonate, incearca stimularea acestui sector prin integrarea activitatii de ameliorare a efectivelor de bovine la norme le si standardele UE si promovarea activitatii de ameliorare a efectivelor de bovine in directia maririi si imbunatatirii productiei de carne, precum si prin sustinerea financiara a organizarii exploatatiilor in asociatii si stimularea cresterii efectivelor in zonele montane care prezinta oportunitati in cresterea taurinelor.

“Ameliorarea genetica a efectivelor de taurine reprezinta o activitate cu caracter prioritar in strategia de dezvoltare a zootehniei si se realizeaza prin lucrari de selectie, efectuate pe baza controlului oficial al performantelor si de reproductie dirijata, cu precadere prin insamântari artificiale”, se mai arata in documentul MAPDR.

De asemenea, orientarea lucrarilor de selectie la taurine este in strânsa corelatie cu directiile de exploatare a raselor, care conditioneaza atât obiective le ameliorarii, cât si ponderea diferite lor criterii in evaluarile genetice ale populatiilor rasiale.

 

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2 Comentarii

  1. valentin

    salut. sunt din pascani si de mai mult timp ma dandesc sa ma profilez pe crescutul de vaci pt carne.actualmente lucrez in afara tarii si as avea nevoie de un pic de indrumare pt inceput.un articol interesant.va multumesc

  2. daniel

    salut ma numesc daniel si sunt din jud.bacau imi doresc foarte mult sa pornesc o afacere cu cresterea vacilor de carne si as avea si am si ceva posibilitati de a incepe dar vreau sa intru in contact cu dumneavoastrasi sa ma ajutati k am nevoie de niste sfaturi vo rog mult…va multumesc.

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