A fost descoperită tehnica prin care panourile solare devin mai eficiente

A fost descoperită tehnica prin care panourile solare devin mai eficiente

“Optimizarea fotochimică” ar permite celulelor solare să atingă eficienţă de 40%

- Cercetătorii de la Universitatea Sydney au dezvoltat o tehnică de optimizare fotochimică a celulelor fotovoltaice care le sporeşte considerabil eficienţa.

Eficienţa conversiei luminii în energie electrică a celulelor fotovoltaice a continuat să se îmbunătăţească în ultimii ani, însă cu toate acestea dispozitivele menţionate au o limită fizică  estimată în jurul valorii de 33% eficienţă.

Aceasta deoarece legile fizicii împiedică celulele să absoarbă fotoni sub un anumit nivel energetic, deci această lumină de energie joasă nu poate fi convertită în electricitate şi se pierde.

Acum cercetătorii au găsit o metodă de a face ca doi fotoni de energie joasă să formeze un singur foton cu energie înaltă, ceea ce permite colectarea acestei părţi a spectrului vizual actualmente nefolosită de celulele solare cristaline simple cu joncţiune p-n. Aceasta le oferă potenţialul de a atinge un record de eficienţă de până la 40%.

Tehnica, denumită “optimizare fotochimică”, se bazează pe două tipuri diferite de molecule plasate după celula solară, într-o soluţie ce combină doi fotoni de energie joasă într-unul cu energie ridicată.

Primul tip de moleculă absoarbe fotonii “săraci”, împiedicându-i să scape şi stocându-i într-o stare persistentă. Această stare durează suficient pentru a fi transferată unei a doua molecule organice pe care o întâlnesc în soluţie.

Când două astfel de molecule se întâlnesc una pe cealaltă, una revine la starea iniţială iar a doua devine mai energizată. Această stare este scurtă, căci ulterior molecula emite un foton înalt energizat, ca şi cum celula solară ar fi absorbit acel foton şi-l transformă în energie electrică.

“Avem acum o referinţă pentru performanţa unei celule astfel optimizate. Trebuie să îmbunătăţim procedeul de câteva ori, dar calea de urmat e clară acum”, a arătat profesorul Schmidt de la Universitatea Sydney, care a dezvoltat acest aşa-zis ”turbo pentru celule solare” cu parteneri precum Centrul Helmholtz pentru Materiale şi Energie, Berlin.

Tehnica de optimizare fotochimică a fost detaliată în revista Energy & Environmental Science, la începutul anului.

 

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